https://docs.npmjs.com/, or run:
npm config set viewer browser
This command will set the npm docs to open in your default web browser rather than
I don't know yet.
Try reading the error output first, ensure this is a true npm issue and not a package issue. If you are having an issue with a package dependency, please submit your error to that particular package maintainer.
For any npm issues, try following the instructions, or even retracing your steps. If the issue continues to persist, submit a bug with the steps to reproduce, please include the operating system you are working on, along with the error you recieve.
npm rootcommand to see where modules go, and the
npm bincommand to see where executables go
-gflag, then its executables go in
npm bin -gand its modules go in
npm root -g.
Install it globally by tacking
--global to the command. (This
is especially important for command line utilities that need to add
their bins to the global system
Install it locally.
The global install location is a place for command-line utilities
to put their bins in the system
PATH. It's not for use with
require() a module in your code, then that means it's a
dependency, and a part of your program. You need to install it locally
in your program.
Not every change is an improvement, but every improvement is a change. This would be like asking git to do network IO for every commit. It's not going to happen, because it's a terrible idea that causes more problems than it solves.
It is much harder to avoid dependency conflicts without nesting
dependencies. This is fundamental to the way that npm works, and has
proven to be an extremely successful approach. See
If you want a package to be installed in one place, and have all your
programs reference the same copy of it, then use the
npm link command.
That's what it's for. Install it globally, then link it into each
program that uses it.
Write your own package manager. You could probably even wrap up
in a shell script if you really wanted to.
npm will not help you do something that is known to be a bad idea.
Usually, no. Allow npm to resolve dependencies for your packages.
For packages you deploy, such as websites and apps, you should use npm shrinkwrap to lock down your full dependency tree:
If you are paranoid about depending on the npm ecosystem, you should run a private npm mirror or a private cache.
If you want 100% confidence in being able to reproduce the specific bytes included in a deployment, you should use an additional mechanism that can verify contents rather than versions. For example, Amazon machine images, DigitalOcean snapshots, Heroku slugs, or simple tarballs.
npm should never be capitalized unless it is being displayed in a location that is customarily all-caps (such as the title of man pages.)
Contrary to the belief of many, "npm" is not in fact an abbreviation for "Node Package Manager". It is a recursive bacronymic abbreviation for "npm is not an acronym". (If it was "ninaa", then it would be an acronym, and thus incorrectly named.)
"NPM", however, is an acronym (more precisely, a capitonym) for the National Association of Pastoral Musicians. You can learn more about them at http://npm.org/.
In software, "NPM" is a Non-Parametric Mapping utility written by Chris Rorden. You can analyze pictures of brains with it. Learn more about the (capitalized) NPM program at http://www.cabiatl.com/mricro/npm/.
The first seed that eventually grew into this flower was a bash utility
named "pm", which was a shortened descendent of "pkgmakeinst", a
bash function that was used to install various different things on different
platforms, most often using Yahoo's
npm was ever an
acronym for anything, it was
node pm or maybe
So, in all seriousness, the "npm" project is named after its command-line
utility, which was organically selected to be easily typed by a right-handed
programmer using a US QWERTY keyboard layout, ending with the
right-ring-finger in a postition to type the
- key for flags and
other command-line arguments. That command-line utility is always
lower-case, though it starts most sentences it is a part of.
Arguments are greps.
npm search jsdom shows jsdom packages.
npm install npm -g
You can also update all outdated local packages by doing
npm update without
any arguments, or global packages by doing
npm update -g.
Occasionally, the version of npm will progress such that the current
version cannot be properly installed with the version that you have
installed already. (Consider, if there is ever a bug in the
In those cases, you can do this:
curl https://www.npmjs.com/install.sh | sh
A package is:
<name>@<version>that is published on the registry with (c)
<name>@<tag>that points to (d)
<name>that has a "latest" tag satisfying (e)
giturl that, when cloned, results in (a).
Even if you never publish your package, you can still get a lot of benefits of using npm if you just want to write a node program (a), and perhaps if you also want to be able to easily install it elsewhere after packing it up into a tarball (b).
Git urls can be of the form:
git://github.com/user/project.git#commit-ish git+ssh://user@hostname:project.git#commit-ish git+http://user@hostname/project/blah.git#commit-ish git+https://user@hostname/project/blah.git#commit-ish
commit-ish can be any tag, sha, or branch which can be supplied as
an argument to
git checkout. The default is
A module is anything that can be loaded with
require() in a Node.js
program. The following things are all examples of things that can be
loaded as modules:
package.jsonfile containing a
index.jsfile in it.
Most npm packages are modules, because they are libraries that you
require. However, there's no requirement that an npm
package be a module! Some only contain an executable command-line
interface, and don't provide a
main field for use in Node programs.
Almost all npm packages (at least, those that are Node programs)
contain many modules within them (because every file they load with
require() is a module).
In the context of a Node program, the
module is also the thing that
was loaded from a file. For example, in the following program:
var req = require('request')
we might say that "The variable
req refers to the
node_modules" folder, but "
package.json" file? Why not
package.json file defines the package. (See "What is a
node_modules folder is the place Node.js looks for modules.
(See "What is a module?" above.)
For example, if you create a file at
node_modules/foo.js and then
had a program that did
var f = require('foo.js') then it would load
the module. However,
foo.js is not a "package" in this case,
because it does not have a package.json.
Alternatively, if you create a package which does not have an
index.js or a
"main" field in the
package.json file, then it is
not a module. Even if it's installed in
node_modules, it can't be
an argument to
"node_modules"is the name of my deity's arch-rival, and a Forbidden Word in my religion. Can I configure npm to use a different folder?
No. This will never happen. This question comes up sometimes, because it seems silly from the outside that npm couldn't just be configured to put stuff somewhere else, and then npm could load them from there. It's an arbitrary spelling choice, right? What's the big deal?
At the time of this writing, the string
'node_modules' appears 151
times in 53 separate files in npm and node core (excluding tests and
Some of these references are in node's built-in module loader. Since npm is not involved at all at run-time, node itself would have to be configured to know where you've decided to stick stuff. Complexity hurdle #1. Since the Node module system is locked, this cannot be changed, and is enough to kill this request. But I'll continue, in deference to your deity's delicate feelings regarding spelling.
Many of the others are in dependencies that npm uses, which are not
necessarily tightly coupled to npm (in the sense that they do not read
npm's configuration files, etc.) Each of these would have to be
configured to take the name of the
node_modules folder as a
parameter. Complexity hurdle #2.
Furthermore, npm has the ability to "bundle" dependencies by adding
the dep names to the
"bundledDependencies" list in package.json,
which causes the folder to be included in the package tarball. What
if the author of a module bundles its dependencies, and they use a
different spelling for
node_modules? npm would have to rename the
folder at publish time, and then be smart enough to unpack it using
your locally configured name. Complexity hurdle #3.
Furthermore, what happens when you change this name? Fine, it's
easy enough the first time, just rename the
node_modules folders to
./blergyblerp/ or whatever name you choose. But what about when you
change it again? npm doesn't currently track any state about past
configuration settings, so this would be rather difficult to do
properly. It would have to track every previous value for this
config, and always accept any of them, or else yesterday's install may
be broken tomorrow. Complexity hurdle #4.
Never going to happen. The folder is named
node_modules. It is
written indelibly in the Node Way, handed down from the ancient times
of Node 0.3.
You don't. Try one of these node version managers:
You'll most likely want to
npm link your development folder. That's
To set up your own private registry, check out
Yes. It should be a url to a gzipped tarball containing a single folder that has a package.json in its root, or a git url. (See "what is a package?" above.)
Go to https://npmjs.com/forgot.
Either the registry is down, or node's DNS isn't able to reach out.
To check if the registry is down, open up https://registry.npmjs.org/ in a web browser. This will also tell you if you are just unable to access the internet for some reason.
If the registry IS down, let us know by emailing email@example.com or posting an issue at https://github.com/npm/npm/issues. If it's down for the world (and not just on your local network) then we're probably already being pinged about it.
You can also often get a faster response by visiting the #npm channel on Freenode IRC.
npm has only one global namespace. If you want to namespace your own packages,
you may: simply use the
- character to separate the names or use scoped
packages. npm is a mostly anarchic system. There is not sufficient need to
impose namespace rules on everyone.
As of 2.0, npm supports scoped packages, which allow you to publish a group of related modules without worrying about name collisions.
Every npm user owns the scope associated with their username. For example, the
npm owns the scope
@npm. Scoped packages are published inside a
scope by naming them as if they were files under the scope directory, e.g., by
Scoped packages are supported by the public npm registry. The npm client is backwards-compatible with un-scoped registries, so it can be used to work with scoped and un-scoped registries at the same time.
Unscoped packages can only depend on other unscoped packages. Scoped packages can depend on packages from their own scope, a different scope, or the public registry (unscoped).
For the current documentation of scoped packages, see https://docs.npmjs.com/misc/scope
For the reasoning behind the "one global namespace", please see this discussion: https://github.com/npm/npm/issues/798 (TL;DR: It doesn't actually make things better, and can make them worse.)
For the pre-implementation discussion of the scoped package feature, see this discussion: https://github.com/npm/npm/issues/5239
npm was originally written by Isaac Z. Schlueter, and many others have contributed to it, some of them quite substantially.
Post an issue on the github project:
npm is not capable of hatred. It loves everyone, especially you.
Last modified October 30, 2015 Found a typo? Send a pull request!